Evaluation of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and pattern recognition for the identification of bladder cancer from urine headspace

Previous studies have indicated that volatile organic compounds specific to bladder cancer may exist in urine headspace, raising the possibility that they may be of diagnostic value for this particular cancer. To further examine this hypothesis, urine samples were collected from patients diagnosed with either bladder cancer or a non-cancerous urological disease/infection, and from healthy volunteers, from which the volatile metabolomes were analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.